Б. Инфинитив в функции определения

The problem to be solved; the work to be finished; the cards to be punched; calculations to be performed; the machine to be shown at the exhibition; the device to be provided with the necessary facts; computers to be used for data processing; efforts to increase reliability; electronics to connect systems and subsystems; the speed of response to depend on the size of transistor; computers to perform thousands of calculations per second; vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals; these are circuits to use a large number of transistors; operations to be performed.

Exercise 5.Составьте предложения, используя инфинитив.

Model:Graph plotters use pens. The purpose is to produce images. (Графические плоттеры используют перья. Цель – создавать изображения.)

=> Graph plotters use pens to produce images (Графические плоттеры используют перья, чтобы создавать изображения).

1.Input devices are used. The purpose is to get the data into the computer. 2. Computers can interact with pupils. The purpose is to enhance the learning process. 3. We can use speech recognition. The purpose is to dictate data into the computer. 4. Computers are used. The purpose is to diagnose many illnesses. 5. The purpose is to send your e-mail. Click the Send button. 6. The purpose is to create a database in Excel. You have to remember the following. 7. Use the online help. The purpose is to find out how to create a database. 8. The purpose is to work effectively with desktop publishing packages. You need a computer with high specification. 9. The mouse is moved around on the desk. The purpose is to transmit the movement of your hand to the computer. 10. A spellchecker is very useful. The purpose is to avoid mistakes. 11. The hard disk is surrounded with a metal case. The purpose is to prevent all outside substances from entering the disk area. 12. Light pens need special software. The purpose is to make them work.

Exercise 6.Read the text. Find modal verbs and verbs in Passive voice as much as possible.

As it is well known, a computer cannot perform or complete any useful work unless it is able to communicate with its exter­nal environment. All data and instructions enter and leave the central processing unit through primary storage. Input-output devices are needed to link primary storage to the environment, which is external to the computer system. So input devices are used to enter data into primary storage. Output units accept data from primary storage to provide users with information or to record the data on a secondary storage device. Some devices are used for both the input and output functions.

The data with which these devices work may or may not be in a form that humans can understand. For example the data that a data entry operator keys into the memory of a computer by typing on a keyboard are readable by humans. However, the data that tell a computer about the performance of an automo­bile engine are not in a form that humans can read. They are electrical signals from an analog sensor. Similarly, output may be on a printed page, which humans can read easily, or upon some other medium where the data are not visible, such as on magnetic tape or disk.

As we know, all of the data flow from input to final output is managed by the control unit in the CPU. Regardless of the na­ture of the I/O devices, special processors are called I/O interfaces.

Exercise 7.Get ready to speak about I/O environment (10-15 sentences).

LESSON VII

Exercise 1. Read new words and word combinations.

enable-позволять - допускать; делать возможным

press a button - нажать на кнопку

keep buttons depressed - удерживать кнопки в нажатом состоянии

human-readable form - удобная для чтения форма

to identify -распознать; обозначить

approach - подход; метод; принцип; приближение

at a time - за один раз; одновременно

to cause- вызывать; приводить к (ч.-л.); заставлять

to strike against a ribbon - ударять по ленте

typewriter - печатное устройство

to spray drops of ink - распылять капли чернил

to affect- влиять; воздействовать

technique - метод; способ; техника; методика; технология

keyboard- клавиатура


key - клавиша; кнопка; ключевой,

manipulator – манипулятор

trackball- трекбол

touch panel- сенсорная панель

graphic plotting tables- графические планшеты

sound card - звуковая карта (плата)

operating mode- режим работы

double-click - двойное нажатие

erase - удалить, стереть

roller - ролик; валик

track

· следить; прослеживать; проходить;

· путь; дорожка; соединение

permitting capacity - разрешающая способность

performance

· (рабочая) характеристика; производительность;

· быстродействие; скорость работы;

· пропускная способность

printer

· character ~ принтер с посимвольной печатью;

· line ~ принтер с построчной печатью

· page ~ принтер с постраничной печатью

· (nоn) impact ~ (бес)контактный принтер

· letter-quality ~ принтер с типографским качеством печати

· dot-matrix ~ точечно-матричный принтер

· ink-jet ~ струйный принтер

laser-beam ~ лазерный принтер


READ AND TRANSLATE THE TEXT

INPUT DEVICES

Several devices are known to be used for inputting information into the computer: a keyboard, some coordinate input devices, such as manipulators (a mouse, a trackball), touch panels and graphical plotting tables, scanners, digital cameras, TV tuners, sound cards etc. When personal computers first became popular, the most common device used to transfer information from the user to the computer was the keyboard. It enables inputting numerical and text data. A standard keyboard has 104 keys and three more ones informing about the operating mode of light indicators in the upper right corner.

Later when more advanced graphics became to develop, user found that a keyboard did not provide the design capabilities of graphics and text representation on the display. There appeared manipulators, a mouse and a trackball, that are usually used while operating with graphical interface. Each software program uses these buttons differently.

The mouse is an optic-mechanical input device. The mouse has three or two buttons which control the cursor movement across the screen. The mouse is certain to provide the cursor control thus simplifying user's orientation on the display . The mouse's primary functions are to help the user draw, point and select images on his computer display by moving the mouse across the screen.

In general software programs require to press one or more buttons, sometimes keeping them depressed or double-click them to issue changes in commands and to draw or to erase images. When you move the mouse across a flat surface, the ball located on the bottom side of the mouse turns two rollers. One is tracking the mouse's vertical movements, the other is tracking horizontal movements. The rotating ball glides easily, giving the user good control over the textual and graphical images.

In portable computers touch panels or touch pads are used instead of manipulators. Moving a finger along the surface of the touch pad is transformed into the cursor movement across the screen.

Graphical plotting tables (plotters) find application in drawing and inputting manuscript texts. You can draw, add notes and signs to electronic documents by means of a special pen. You know the quality of graphical plotting tables to be characterized by permitting capacity, that is the number of lines per inch, and their capability to respond to the force of pen pressing.

Scanner is used for optical inputting of images (photographies, pictures, slides) and texts and converting them into the computer form.

Digital videocameras have been recently spread. We suggest them to enable getting videoimages and photographs directly in digital computer format. Digital cameras give possibility to get high quality photos.

Sound cards produce sound conversion from analog to digital form. They are able to synthesize sounds. Special game-ports and joysticks are widely used in computer games.

Answer the following questions:

1.What devices are used for inputting information into the computer? 2. What is the function of a keyboard? 3. Why do many users prefer manipulators to keyboard? 4. How does the mouse operate? What is its function? 5.What is used in portable computers instead of manipulators? 6. What is the touch pad's principle of operation? 7. Where do graphical plotting tables find application?

Exercise 2. Look through the text and then answer the questions below.

OUTPUT DEVICES. PRINTERS

Several devices are used for outputting information from the computer, but printers are sure to be the most commonly used output devices and to be components of almost all computer systems. We consider printers to provide information in a permanent and much more human-readable form than any other means. Printers vary greatly in performance and design.

We will classify printers as character printers, line printers and page printers in order to identify three different approaches to printing, each with a different speed range. In addition, printers can be described as either impact or non-impact. Printers that use electromechanical mechanisms that cause hammers to strike against a ribbon and the paper are called impact printers. Non-impact printers do not hit or impact a ribbon to print.

Character printers print only one character at a time. A typewriter is an example of a character printer. Character printers are the type used with literally all microcomputers as well as on computers of all sizes whenever the printing requirements are not large. Character printers may be of several types. A letter-quality printer is a character printer which produces output of typewriter quality. Such a printer has speeds ranging from 10 to 50 characters per second. Dot-matrix printers form each character as a pattern of dots. These printers are stated to have a lower quality of type. But they are generally faster printers than the first ones - in the range of 50 to 200 characters per second. One of the newest types of character printer is the ink-jet printer. It sprays small drops of ink onto paper to form printed characters. The ink has a high iron content, which is affected by magnetic fields of the printer. These magnetic fields cause the ink to take the shape of a character as the ink approaches the paper.

Line printers are electromechanical machines used for high-volume paper output on most computer systems. Their printing speeds are such that to an observer they appear to be printing a line at a time. They are impact printers. The speeds of them vary from 100 to 2500 lines per minute.

Page printers are high-speed non-impact printers. Their printing rates are so high that output appears to emerge from the printer a page at a time. A variety of techniques are used in the design of page printers. These techniques, called electrophotographic techniques, have developed from the paper copier technology. Laser-beam printers use a combination of laser beam and electrophotographic techniques to create printer output at a rate equal to 18000 lines per minute.

Answer the following questions:

1. What are the three types of printers? 2. What is a letter-quality printer? What is a dot-matrix printer? 3. What type of printer is the most common with microcomputer systems? 4. What is an impact printer? Give an example. 5. What is a non-impact printer? Give examples. 6. How do you distinguish between a letter-quality printer and a dot-matrix printer? Which of these printers is slower? 7. What types of character printers do you know? 8. How are printed characters formed by means of an ink-jet printer? 9. What are the main types of a line printer? Which of them is faster? 10. What techniques are used in the operation of page printers?

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Exercise 1.Find the English equivalents in the text.

Введение информации; манипуляторы; мышь; трекбол; сенсорная панель; графические планшеты; цифровые камеры; сканеры; ТВ тюнеры; стандартная клавиатура; числовая и текстовая информация; световые индикаторы; клавиши; режим работы; презентация текста на мониторе; графический интерфейс; программные средства; управлять движением курсора; выбирать изображения; удерживать кнопки в нажатом состоянии; двойное нажатие; стирать объекты; вращать ролики; портативный компьютер; рукописный текст; разрешающая способность

Exercise 2.Remember the meaning of new words and try to translate the following word combinations.

То accomplish: accomplished; unaccomplished; accomplishment.

To adapt: adaptable; unadaptable; adaptability; unadaptability; adaptation; adapter.

To digitize: digit; digital; digitization; digitizer.

To erase: erasable; erasability; eraser; erasing; erasure.

To permit: permitted; permissible; permissibility; permission.

To print: printable; printed; printer; printing;

To scan: scanning; scanner.

To recognize: recognition; recognizer; recognizable; unrecognizable.

To respond: response; responsible; irresponsible; responsibility; irresponsibility.

To reverse: reversed; reversible; irreversible; reversion; reversibility.

To transform: transformer; transformation; transformational; transformative

Approach: comprehensive approach; database approach; self-study approach; step-by-step approach; trial-and-error approach.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Exercise 1.Translate the sentences

A: 1. It was not difficult for the pupils to understand the function of the mouse in computer operation. 2. There is no reason for computer experts to use computers of the first generation nowadays. 3. The mechanism is provided with special devices for the whole system to function automatically. 4. The text was very interesting but rather difficult for the students to translate it without a dictionary. 5. It is not easy for me to learn to speak English fluently.

B: 1. We know the machine to react to a series of electrical impulses that can be represented in binary numbers. 2. Scientists considered silicon to be one of the best materials for the creation of an IС. 3. We know all data to be translated into binary code before being stored in main storage. 4. Engineers expect these new devices to be tested very soon. 5. They want their son to become a computer operator and to design new computer models.

C:1. Printers are known to vary greatly in performance and design. 2. They are expected to be the most commonly used devices. 3. Magnetic fields are supposed to effect a high iron content of the ink. 4. The ink-jet printer is stated to be one of the newest types of character printers. 5. Electrophotographic techniques proved to have developed from the paper copier technology. 6. An impact printer is considered to produce a printed character by impacting a character font against the paper. 7. Dot-matrix printers seem to have a lower quality of type. 8. The most common printer type used on larger systems is sure to be the line printer. 9. A lot of techniques are believed to be used in the design of printers. 10. A laser is certain to be an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.

Exercise 2.Translate the following sentences with the infinitive and infinitive constructions.

1. The principal thing to be understood is that the computer has become the most powerful tool in many spheres of life. 2. The computer is regarded to save many years of monotonous work performed by hand. 3. Some people believe computers to be able to solve problems yet unsolved by man. 4. Computers are able to control power stations and docks. 5. Nowadays computers are considered to be complicated machines for performing a great number of tasks. 6. Computers are known to be used in astronomy and upper atmospheric research. 7. You know computers to help in different spheres of today's life. 8. This machine is known to use unique language for solving problems. 9. Two entirely different things can be shown to have a likeness by mathematical equations.

Exercise 3.Translate the sentences using the words and word combinations of two previous lessons.

1. Основная функция этого устройства состоит в том, чтобы измерять поток данных. 2. Считается, что среда устройства ввода-вывода связанна с человеком или независима от него. 3. Преобразование в двоичный код – обязательная операция в данном случае. 4. Важно точно и быстро настроить устройство ввода-вывода по отношению к внешней среде. 5. Для печати этих 3-х страниц ему пришлось включить цветной принтер. 6. Файл, который должен быть прочитан и копирован, находиться в этой папке. 7. Требовалось, удерживать кнопки в нажатом состоянии. 8. Предполагается, что эти устройства смогут читать рукописный текст. 9. Известно, что все принтеры отличаются по рабочим характеристикам и внешнему виду. 10. Несомненно, мышью было легче управлять движением курсора. 11. Они предполагали, что струйные принтеры скоро будут заменены современными устройствами. 12. Тестирование показало, что точечно-матричные принтеры быстрее, чем принтеры с типографическим качеством печати.


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